Va'aifetu.

Bula Vinaka, Fakaalofa lahi atu, Fakatalofaatu, Halo ola keta, Kia orana, Malo e lelei, Malo ni, Mauri, Namaste, Talofa lava, Warm greetings

Introducing Va'aifetu

Va’aifetu provides cultural knowledge and insight to help us work more effectively with Pacific children and youth.

Va’aifetu has been developed in response to calls from Pacific communities for us to do better for Pacific children and families that come to the notice of our service. In setting us this challenge, community leaders, elders, Pacific academics,and professionals in the non-government sector walked alongside our Pacific practitioners to ensure this package of knowledge represented important Pacific values, realities and world views in a meaningful way.

Va’aifetu is a Samoan metaphorical term that is derived from the words 'va'ai' which means to take care of, look, see, observe, consider; and 'fetu' which means star or stars. Va'ai  is the role of families, communities, practitioners and organisations. Va’aifetu is about the guardianship of people - their light, intelligence, wisdom, aspirations, strengths and potential.  The stars are the children, families and practitioners.

The name Va’aifetu was inspired by the history of Pacific ancestors who explored and successfully navigated the Pacific Ocean (an area that covers about a third of the globe) and settled its islands. Archaeological evidence shows that these navigators travelled the Pacific Ocean by interpreting the positions of stars/fetu, the sun, the movement of the sea, weather patterns, and wildlife to guide them through long journeys.

The metaphorical significance of stars as guides is transferred in Va’aifetu to symbolise the importance of children, families and those who work alongside them in times of great difficulty and challenge.

The surrounding elements are often out of the control of the stars but are meaningless without them. The navigator’s practice of watching the stars to stay the course and not get lost encapsulates the foundational belief of Va’aifetu that practice must be guided by the people who are the experts in their experiences, aspirations, most importantly our vulnerable children.

Va’aifetu consists of two bodies of work.

Part I: Va'aifetu - Data, Literature, Practice Environment

Va'aifetu

is a reference source. This provides core issues and trends in relation to Pacific children in Aotearoa. The information is based on Child, Youth and Family data, research, practitioners' anecdotal experiences and other sources to provide context and cultural relevance.

The artwork was gifted by children in our care.

These pieces tell of values, relationships and connections that our children identify with and consider most important. They also signal the spiritual and emotional resilience that children hold onto through the challenges they face.

When young people were told that Va’aifetu was developed to better meet the needs of Pacific children, young people and their families, a robust discussion took place around how this can happen when there are so many cultures that make up the Pacific. The young people came to an agreement that any symbol created would have to be one that has significance across many Pacific nations. Members of the Te Au rere a te Tonga Pacific Island Network helped the young people brainstorm ideas and talked about concepts that were important to Pacific peoples.

The young people selected the themes of honour, responsibility, patience, faith, and the preservation of the environment. They then chose the symbol of the turtle to represent these themes.

“The turtle is a symbol of leadership, it tells me to be patient, be respectful and stay connected to my family”

The turtle holds a special place in many Pacific cultures and can be found throughout the Pacific. It represents honour, strength, responsibility and connection. The artists believed that this best represents what Va’aifetu is aiming to achieve.

In the middle of the turtle’s shell is a palm tree (birds-eye view). This represents the importance of preserving the natural environment because is a life source for an island. Lastly there are two spirals surrounding the turtle, one which consists of fish like symbols. The fish behind the turtle represent the many generations that preceded us. The fish ahead of the turtle represents the generations that are still to come. This serves as a reminder to preserve what we have and always honour and respect the traditions of our ancestors. The second spiral represents God’s influence as an all- encompassing power. It reminds us that God was with our ancestors in the beginning, is with us now, and will be with our children and grandchildren when we pass.

The young people believed that with honour, leadership, patience, the guidance of those who have passed, preservation for those to come, and the support of God; great outcomes can be achieved.

Part II: Va'aifetu - Principles, Cultural Frameworks, Guidelines

Va'aifetu

is a practical guide on how to integrate culture into practice.

It contains eight specific frameworks to guide social work practice with children, young people and families of Cook Island, Niuean, Fijian (iTuakei), Indian-Fijian, Samoan, Tokelauan, Tongan and Tuvaluan cultures.

The frameworks are shaped around relational principles particular to each culture.

The knowledge is also relevant to workforce development, research, policy, communications and non social work business to support good outcomes for children and their families.

 The artist explains his work

"The flower represents me, the star my future. To my left is God, my ancestors and my family. To the right are all the bad things that surround me. The bad things are always going to be there but by staying with my family and placing faith in God I can see a pathway to my dreams" (Artist)

The artist further explained that the artwork represents the journey a young person takes from the start of life through to the attainment of their dreams.

At the top of the picture is a star, which represents hopes and dreams. A star never sits alone in the night sky. The star also represents Pacific concepts of reciprocity and social responsibility. It demonstrates that while one person can achieve great things, these achievements are linked to their family/island/ nation, reminding people to remain humble.

The large flower at the bottom of the picture represents a newborn child that represents a family's hopes, dreams and aspirations. This is a big responsibility for a child which is why the flower is large. Within this flower sits a lineage of wisdom, history and beauty, represented by the frangipani which is one of the most beautiful symbols in Pacific cultures..

"This picture makes me feel hopeful about my future"

To the right of the flower is a series of flowers contained within walls. These walls represent the ever present external pressures placed upon a child throughout their life. These pressures can confine, minimise and impinge on the great potential and beauty that a child is born with, and make it difficult for them to reach their full potential. Conversely, to the left of the flower are symbols that empower and support the child to achieve.

The first symbol represents the family. Immediately next to this is a symbol which represents the child's lineage and genealogy. The last symbol is a dove which is reference to faith and God. The dove slightly overlaps the genealogy line to show that this child is a child of God, and that there is an eternal connection between the two of them - a connection that started with the child's ancestors and sits within them. The flower touches both patterns to demonstrate that regardless of difficulties, pressures and obstacles that an individual encounter throughout their life; a connection must be kept with loved ones, one's lineage, faith, and God.

A clear pathway between the two is created which enables an individual to achieve their hopes, dreams and aspirations. "I want to fly high to reach the stars" (Artist)


Practice Policy

When to use Va'aifetu

  • Va’aifetu must be used by Child, Youth and Family staff when working with Pacific families alongside existing practice tools as part of best practice
  • The application of Va’aifetu must be reflected in case records
  • Application is to be woven through the Assess-Plan-Implement-Review cycle.

Voice of the Child

In all actions by practitioners, the paramount interest of the child is the primary consideration in accordance with sections 6 and 13 of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989 (CYP&F Act 1989), and Article 3 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC). Accordingly:

  • Every child must be engaged in a manner, language, context, and timeframe that will enable her or him to engage meaningfully in return
  • The child’s dignity will be respected at all times, and their best interest upheld
  • Caregivers, family and collectives of significance to and for the child, will be engaged with respect and in shared purpose to achieve the child’s best interest.  

The wider Application of Va'aifetu

Working Together

We know that when children come to the notice of the state, their needs and situations are often complex, and require the combined commitment of different parties to help them heal, build resilience, take opportunities, and have improved quality of life.

The Vulnerable Children Act 2014 (VCA 2014) requires the Ministries of Education, Health, Justice, Social Development and Police to work collectively to achieve the Government’s priorities for vulnerable children. The domino expectations upon services’ contracted and funded by the state create opportunities for community stakeholders to take part in the ownership and development of solutions for children.

The spirit of the VCA 2014 resonates with Pacific peoples' beliefs and traditions about collective responsibility for ensuring and securing the best interests of children.

Culturally Responsive Practice

Every person is born with an identity, spirituality, dignity and significance - within all, culture is a core element. Culture is a core consideration in the pursuit of children’s wellbeing and outcomes under New Zealand law.

  • Section 5(g) of the CYP&F Act 1989 states that decisions affecting a child should take into consideration, without limitation, the child's age, identity, cultural connections, education, and health
  • Section 6 of the VCA 2014 specifies child well-being to be inclusive of their physical, emotional, education, cultural, social and economic state. Va’aifetu offers a tool for interagency partners to develop standards of social work practice with Pacific children and families.

Va’aifetu will:

  • support cultural responsiveness in the application of duties and powers in accordance with the CYP&F Act 1989, VCA 2014 and the Adoption Act 1955.
  • help grow practitioners understanding of Pacific cultures, and develop cultural competency to meet professional registration and accreditation requirements.

References

Children

Anae, M. (1997). Towards a NZ-born Samoan identity – some reflection on labels. Pacific Health Dialog. 4(2). Pg. 128-137.

Bartholet. E. (2005). International Adoption. In Askeland, L. (Ed.). Children, and youth in adoption orphanages, and foster care. Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. 107-130. Retrieved from http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/bartholet/pdfs/IAChapter5FINAL.pdf

Griffen. V. (2006). Gender Relations in Pacific cultures and their impact on the growth and development of children. Paper prepared for a seminar on “Children’s Rights and Culture in the Pacific” 30th October 2006. UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Gender_Relations_in_Pacific_cultures.pdf

Health Promotion Agency. (2013). Use of alcohol among Year 10 students. HPA 2(24). http://www.hpa.org.nz/sites/default/files/in_fact_use_of_alcohol_among_year_10_students.pdf

Mila, K., & Sampero, D. (2008). A well written body. Wellington. New Zealand. Huia Publishers.

Office of the Children’s Commissioner. (2012). Solutions to Child Poverty in New Zealand: Evidence for Action. Office of the Children’s Commissioner. Wellington. New Zealand

Samoan Observer. (1/12/2014). Abandoned baby: Reverend calls for church leaders to address sex education. Retrieved 1/10/2015 from http://www.samoaobserver.ws/other/community/12350-abandoned-baby-reverend-calls-for-church-leaders-to-address-sex-education.

UNICEF Pacific. (10/2/2014). Born Identity: Give every child their birth right. Retrieved from 6/1/2015 from http://unicefpacific.blogspot.co.nz/2014/02/born-identity-give-every-child-their.html

Youth

Becroft. AJ. (2009). Are there lessons to be learned from the Youth Justice System? A paper presented at Victoria University of Wellington, School of Law on 26 February 2009.

Human Rights Commission. (2008). To be who I am. Human Rights Commission. Wellington. New Zealand.

Kalafatelis, E, McMillen. P, & Palmer, S. (2003). Youth Drinking Monitor August 2003. Retrieved 15/6/2015 from http://www.hpa.org.nz/sites/default/files/imported/field_research_publication_file/YDM2003Summary.pdf

Ministry of Health. (2008). Pacific Youth Health. A paper for the Pacific Health and Disability Action Plan review. Ministry of Health. Wellington. New Zealand.

Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs. (2012). Pacific Adolescent Career Pathways Report. Survey data collection wave 1: baseline results May 2012. Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs. Wellington. New Zealand.

Ministry of Social Development. (2008). Youth gangs in Counties Manukau. Retrieved 26/2014 from https://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/work-programmes/initiatives/youth-gangs/

Ministry of Social Development. (2005). Pacific Youth Development Strategy: Deliver positive life-change and affirmation for all Pacific youth in Auckland. Auckland. New Zealand.

Massey University. (2013). Pathways to youth resilience: Youth Justice in New Zealand. http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/fms/Resilience/Documents/Youth%20Justice.pdf

Nakhid, C. (2009). The meaning of family and home for young Pasifika people involved in gangs in the suburbs of south Auckland. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. Issue 35.

Kneebone, K. (2013). A new way of working with young people. Practice – The New Zealand Corrections Journal. 1(22). Pg: 14-16. Department of Corrections. Wellington. NZ.

Sanders, J & Munford, R. (2015). The Interaction between culture, resilience, risks and outcomes: A New Zealand study. In Youth Resilience and Culture. Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology, Volume 11, Pg. 81-92. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-9514-2_6

Taufa, S., Craig, E., Lennon, D., & Anae, M. (2013). Pacific Teenage Pregnancy in New Zealand. http://www.taha.org.nz/sites/default/files/presentations/2013Conference/Seini%20Taufa_Pacific%20Teenage%20Pregnanacy%20in%20NZ.pdf

 Parenting

Cowley-Malcolm, E.T., Fairbairn-Dunlop, T.P., Paterson, J., Gao. W., Williams. M.(2009). Child discipline and nurturing practices among a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand. Pacific Health Dialog 15(1). Pg. 36-46.

Pereira. J. (2010). Spare the rod and spoil the child: Samoan perspectives on responsible parenting. Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online. http://www.healthhb.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Spare-the-Rod-and-Spoil-the-Child.pdf

Schkluter, P.J., Tautolo, E., & Paterson, J. (2011). Experience of physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of physical punishment and violence in adulthood amongst fathers: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study. Pacific Health Dialog. 17(2). Pg. 148 – 162.

Schoeffel, P., Meleisea, M., David, R., Kalauni,R., Kalolo, K., Kingi, P., Taumoefolau, T., Vuetibau, L., & Williams, S.P. (n.d). Pacific Islands Polynesian attitudes to child training and discipline in Zealand: Some policy implications for social welfare and education. University of Auckland. Auckland. New Zealand.

Family Violence and Gender Based Violence  

Amnesty International Aotearoa New Zealand. (2012). Briefing on sexual and gender based violence in the Pacific. Amnesty International Aotearoa New Zealand, Auckland. NZ.

Family Violence Death Review Committee. (2014). Fourth annual report: January 2013 to December 2013. https://www.hqsc.govt.nz/assets/FVDRC/NEMR-images-files/FVDRC-fourth-report-media-summary-June-2014.pdf

Forster, C. (2011). Ending Domestic Violence in Pacific Island Countries: The Critical Role of Law. Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal, 12(2), Pg. 123 -144.

Fairbairn-Dunlop, P., & Lievore, D. (2007). Pacific prevention of domestic violence programme. Samoa report. New Zealand Police. Wellington. New Zealand.

Jalal, I. (2010). Gender equity in justice systems of the Pacific Island countries and territories. Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Background Papers Series 2010/14. UNDP, Suva, Fiji.

Ma’a Fafine Moe Famili Inc. (2012). National Study on Domestic Violence against Women in Tonga 2009, Nofo ‘a Kainga. Ma`a Fafine mo e Famili, Nuku’alofa. Kingdom of Tonga.

Ministry of Social Development. (2012). Nga Vaka o Kāinga Tapu - a Pacific conceptual framework to address family violence in New Zealand. Wellington. New Zealand.

Ministry of Social Development. (2012). Falefitu. A literature review on culture and family violence in seven Pacific communities in New Zealand. Wellington. New Zealand.

Ministry of Social Development. (2012). Stocktake of providers delivering Family Violence prevention and intervention services to Pacific people and communities. https://www.familyservices.govt.nz/documents/working-with-us/programmes-services/pasefika-proud/externalpacificproviderstocktakereport.pdf

Secretariat of the Pacific Community, United Nations Population Fund, Samoa Government. (2006). Samoa Family Health and Safety Study. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Secretariat of the Pacific Community. (2010). Beijing + 15: Review of progress in implementing the Beijing Platform for Action in Pacific Island countries and territories. Retrieved from http://www.ppdvp.org.nz/wp-content/media/2011/01/Final-web-Beijing+15-whole.pdf UNICEF. (2015). Intersections of links between violence against women and violence against children in the South Pacific. UNICEF Pacific. Suva. Fiji. http://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/Harmful_Connections(1).pdf

UNIFEM. (2010). Ending Violence against Women and Girls: Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. UNIFEM Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

UNICEF. (2015). Intersections of links between violence against women and violence against children in the South Pacific. UNICEF Pacific. Suva. Fiji. http://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/Harmful_Connections(1).pdf

UNIFEM. (2010). Ending Violence against Women and Girls: Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. UNIFEM Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

UNFPA. (2008). An assessment of the state of violence against women in Fiji. UNFPA Pacific Sub Regional Office. Suva. Fiji. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ianwge/taskforces/vaw/Fiji_VAW_Assessment_2008.pdf

UNWOMEN. (2011). Ending Violence against Women and Girls: Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. UN Women Pacific. Suva, Fiji

UNFPA Pacific Sub-regional Office. (1/8/2013). Violence against women (VAW) in the Pacific. Retrieved 12/4/2015 from http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/pacific/2013/07/31/7502/violence_against_women_vaw_in_the_pacific/

Sexual Offending and Trafficking

Fortune, Claire-Ann. (2013). Youth who sexually abuse: Characteristics, treatment outcomes and practice implications. Practice – The New Zealand Corrections Journal. 1(2). Pg. 10-13. Department of Corrections. Wellington. New Zealand.

New Zealand Police Association. (1/5/2013). Under-age and under the radar. NZPA 26(4). Retrieved 20/1/2015 from http://www.policeassn.org.nz/newsroom/publications/featured-articles/under-age-and-under-radar

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d). Human Trafficking. Retrieved 20/1/2015 from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html

US Department of State. (2014). US Department of State Report. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226846.pdf

Practice

Ana Sua-Hawkins, A., & Mafileo, T. (2004). What is cultural supervision? Social Work Now. 10-16. http://www.cyf.govt.nz/documents/about-us/publications/social-work-now/social-work-now-29-dec04.pdf

Farrelly, T. & Nabobo-Baba, U. (2012). ‘Talanoa as Empathic Research’. Paper for presentation at the International Development Conference 2012, Auckland, New Zealand, 3-5 December, 2012. http://www.devnet.org.nz/sites/default/files/Farrelly,%20Trisia%20&%20Nabobo-Baba,%20Unaisi%20Talanoa%20as%20Empathic%20Research%20%5Bpaper%5D_0.pdf

Le Va. (n.d). Pacific peoples in New Zealand - suicide. Retrieved 29/1/2015 from http://www.leva.co.nz/suicide-prevention/pacific-peoples-in-new-zealand-suicide#textonly

Le Va. (2009). Real Skills plus Seitapu. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealth.org.nz/assets/ResourceFinder/Lets-get-real-Real-Skills-plus-Seitapu-Working-with-Pacific-Peoples.pdf

MacPherson, C., & MacPherson, L. (2005). The ifoga. The exchange value of social honour in Samoa. Massey University. Auckland. New Zealand. 109-133. http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/docs/Volume114/jps_v114_no2_2005/1%20The%20ifoga.pdf

Robinson, D., & Robinson, K. (2005). “Pacific ways” of talk Hui and Talanoa. NZ Trade Consortium working paper no 36 July 2005. http://nzier.org.nz/static/media/filer_public/83/9c/839ccd89-864c-4e12-ad77-9947e73564e2/nztc_no_36.pdf.

Matai’a, J. (2006). It’s not what you say it’s how you say it: Cultural ambiguity and about speaking the unspeakable. Social Work Review. 35-41. http://www.childmatters.org.nz/file/Diploma-Readings/Block-3/Different-Cultural-Perspectives/3.3-it-s-not-what-you-say-it-s-how-you-say-it.-judy-matai-a.pdf

Masters, B., Trynes, M., Kaparu, R., Robertson, N., & Waitoki, M. (2002). An evaluation of the cultural supervision prototype undertaken within the Department of Corrections. Hamilton. Retrieved 17/9/2015 from http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10289/858/NMGPS_Paper_Masters.pdf?sequence=1

Seiuli, B. M. S. (December 2013). Gapatiaga i le maliu: How do Samoan men and their families deal with death and bereavement? Health Research Council News. New Zealand.

Tamasese, T. K., & Waldergrave, C. (2012). ‘Just Therapy’: Working with Families in the Context of Economic Recession. Pre-Conference Workshop: Therapeutic Conversations X Coast Plaza Hotel, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 9 May 2012.

Waldergrave, C. King, P., Tamasese, T.K., Maniapoto, M., Parsons T. L., & Sullivan, G. (2011). Resilience in sole parent families: A qualitative study of relational resilience in Maori, Pacific and Pakeha sole parent families. Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Wellington. New Zealand.

Health

Ministry of Health. (2012). Suicide Facts: Deaths and intentional self-harm hospitalisations 2010. Ministry of Health. Wellington. New Zealand.

Ministry of Health. (2008). The health of Pacific children and young people in New Zealand. Wellington. New Zealand.

New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service. (2011). The health of Pacific children and young people with chronic conditions and disabilities in New Zealand. Ministry of Health. Wellington. New Zealand.

Oakley Browne, M.A., Wells, J.E, & Scott, K.M. (Eds) (2006). Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Ministry of Health. Wellington. New Zealand.

Sundborn, G., Taylor, S., Tautolo, E., & Finau, S. (2011). Utilisation of traditional Pacific healers by mothers and children of the Pacific Islands Families study. Pacific Health Dialog. 17(2). Pg. 105 – 118.

General

Anae, M., Coxon, E., Lima. I., Atiga, L.., & Tolley, H. (2007). Pacific consumers’ behaviour and experience in credit markets, with particular reference to the ‘fringe lending’ market. Ministry of Consumer Affairs. Wellington. New Zealand.

Asia Development Bank. (2014). Basics Statistics 2014. Asia Development Bank. Manila. Philippines. http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/42007/basic-statistics-2014.pdf

Dinnen, S., Porter, D., & Sage, C. (2011). Conflict in Melanesia: Theme and lessons. World Development Report 2011, Background Case Study. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/archive/website01306/web/pdf/wdr_2011_case_study_melanesia.pdf

Documentary Educational Resources. (2008, 12 Sep). The Navigators - Pathfinders of the Pacific. (Video file). Retrieved 5/3/2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FglNdqHRUY

Farran, S. (2004). Transexual, faafafine, fakaleiti and marriage law in the Pacific, considerations for the future. The Journal of the Polynesian Society Vol. 113, No. 2, p. 119-142. University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/docs/Volume113/jps_v113_no2_2004/1%20Transsexuals.pdf

Hau’ofa, E. (1994). Our Sea of Islands. The Contemporary Pacific, 6(1), Pg. 147–161. University of the South Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

Human Rights Commission. Rights of Sexual and Gender Minorities - Tikanga Taera me te Tangata Taitini. (chapter 19 of fill report) https://www.hrc.co.nz/files/1914/2388/0525/HRNZ_10_rights_of_sexual_and_gender_minorities.pdf. Pg.304-323

Jones, N. (2010). ‘Loan shark’ money lenders cash in on Pacific communities. http://pacific.scoop.co.nz/2010/10/%E2%80%98loan-shark%E2%80%99-money-lenders-cash-in-on-pacific-communities/

Misa. T. (Aug 27, 2010). Auckland: The Pacific comes to Auckland. Auckland Herald. Retrieved 3/9/2014 from http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10667079.

Nadkarni, D. (16/7/2014). Time to add value to seasonal labour scheme. Island Business. Retrieved 28/2/2015 from http://www.islandsbusiness.com/2014/7/views-from-auckland/new-zealand-to-add-value-to-res-for-pacific-labour/

New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. (2013). Pacific Economic Trends and Snapshot September 2013. http://www.mbie.govt.nz/info-services/infrastructure-growth/pacific-economic-development/documents-image-library/pacific-economic-trends-and-snapshot.pdf

Stege, K.E., Matala, R. & Naupa, A., Simo, J., & Huffer, E. (Eds.). Land and women the matrilineal factor. Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. Suva. Fiji.

Sharp, A. (1964). Ancient voyagers in Polynesia. University of California Press. Berkeley & Los Angeles. US

Te Ara - The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. (n.d). Pacific migrations. Retrieved 5/3/2015 from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/pacific-migrations

Sundborn, G., Metcalf. P.A., Gentles. D., Scragg. R., Schaaf, D., Dyall, L., Black.P., & Jackson, R. (2009). ‘From kava to lager’ – alcohol consumption and drinking patterns for older adults of Pacific ethnic groups, and Europeans in the Diabetes Heart and Health Study (DHAHS) 2002-2003, Auckland, New Zealand. Pacific Health Dialog 15(1). Pg. 47 – 54.

UNWOMEN. (2011). Pacific markets and marker vendors: Evidence, data and knowledge in Pacific Island countries. UNWOMEN Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

Vaioleti. T.M. (2006). Talanoa research methodology: a developing position on Pacific research. Waikato Journal of Education 12. Retrieved from http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10289/6199/VaioletiTalanoa.pdf?sequence=1


Enquiries

These are working documents so if you have any questions, suggestions, or wish to be part of a national pool of advisors, please contact:

Nora Liutai, Project Manager Pacific, Auckland Region 
nora.liutai001@cyf.govt.nz; telephone: +649 909 4519

Karanina Sumeo, Principal Advisor Pacific, Office of the Chief Social Worker
Karanina.Sumeo001@cyf.govt.nz; telephone: +649 909 4530

 

 


Updated 5 May 2016